Transport (lat.: trans - "into", portare - "carry"), a separate branch of the economy that provides various types of transportation, a set of means of communication. Types of transport include air, land (railway and road), water, cable, space vehicles and pipelines.

Cargo transportation or delivery occupies an important place in the production value chain. All types of vehicles are used for cargo transportation, but its choice depends on the nature of the cargo.

The entire process of transporting goods from the producer to the consumer is called logistics, including storage, transportation, transportation, storage, loading, unloading and packaging, providing information about the latter. Incoterms deals with the transfer of risks and responsibility during cargo transportation.


On May 19, 1956, the Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road (CMR) was adopted in Geneva.

It entered into force on July 2, 1961. It has the status of a UN convention. It is intended to regulate relations arising in the process of transportation of international commercial goods by road transport.

58 states (almost all European states and states - former USSR republics), including Russia since September 2, 1983, are participants in the convention.

The Convention applies to any contract for the carriage of goods by road for payment where the places of carriage and delivery of the goods specified in the contract are located in different countries, at least one of which is a party to the Convention.

The CMR stipulates that the contract for the carriage of goods by road must be confirmed by a bill of lading. The CMR waybill is issued in three copies: the first copy is given to the sender, the second is attached to the goods, and the third remains with the carrier. An invoice is not a negotiable document of title.

The convention also defines the responsibility of the carrier, the deadlines for submission of claims and notifications.


TIR Convention - Customs Convention on International Carriage of Goods under TIR Carnets, signed in 1975. November 14 in Geneva

International Road Transport Union (IRU), an international non-governmental organization established for the purpose of implementing the provisions of the TIR Convention, its seat is in Geneva (Switzerland). 171 organizations from 81 countries of the world are members of IRU.

TIR Convention - Customs Convention on the International Carriage of Goods Using the TIR Carnet, an international agreement adopted in 1975 by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The TIR system simplifies border procedures, reducing the administrative burden on customs, transport and logistics companies. It significantly reduces waiting time at border checkpoints, saving time and money.


European agreement on the international carriage of dangerous goods by road - "ADR". It was created by the initiative of the United Nations.

Dangerous cargo - it is the cargo that causes damage to the health or life of people and/or the environment as a result of a transport accident.

ADR operates on the territory of all European Union countries, as well as in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Morocco. In Russia, its equivalent is called ДОПОГ.

The following contracts for the carriage of dangerous goods are also valid in Europe:

IMDG (International Maritime Dangerous Goods) — agreement on carriage of dangerous goods by sea

ICAO-TI (Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by AIR) — regulations for the transportation of dangerous goods by air, document ICAO 9284.

RID (International Regulations Concerning the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail) — contract for the carriage of dangerous goods by rail

Cargoes are divided into the following hazard classes according to the classification of the ADR agreement:

Class 1 — Explosives and articles,

Class 2 — compressed, liquefied and dissolved gases under pressure,

Class 3 — flammable liquids,

Class 4.1 — flammable solids,

Class 4.2 — Self-igniting substances

Class 4.3 — substances which produce flammable gases in contact with water,

Class 5.1 — oxidizing substances,

Class 5.2 — organic peroxides,

Class 6.1 — toxic substances,

Class 6.2 — animal processing by-products and infectious agents,

Class 7 — radioactive materials,

Class 8 — corrosive substances,

Class 9 - other dangerous substances.